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Laser Optics

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Laser Optics

Frank Duarte

ISBN 0122226968
Pages 272

Chapters will provide self-contained treatment of the topic as much as possible to allow the reader to go directly to the appropriate chapter to deal with a particular topic of concern. This sharp focus is necessary to maintain the emphasis, and to make this a practical reference. The knowledge and experience will integrate aspects of laser oscillators, laser amplifiers, laser systems, engineering of rugged laser cavities, design and engineering of laser-based instrumentation, and design of highly reliable laser systems for material processing applications.

Contents Preface Chapter 1 Introduction to Lasers 1. Introduction 1.1 Historical Remarks 2. Lasers 2.1 Laser Optics 3. Excitation Mechanisms and Rate Equations 3.1 Rate Equations 3.2 Dynamics of Multiple-Level System 3.3 Transition Probabilities and Cross Sections 4. Laser Resonators and Laser Cavities Problems References Chapter 2 Dirac Optics 1. Dirac Notation in Optics 2. Interference 2.1 Geometry of the N-Slit Interferometer 2.2 N-Slit Interferometer Experiment 3. Diffraction 4. Refraction 5. Reflection 6. Angular Dispersion 7. Dirac and the Laser Problems References Chapter 3 The Uncertainty Principle in Optics 1. Approximate Derivation of the Uncertainty Principle 1.1 The Wave Character of Particles 1.2 The Diffraction Identity and the Uncertainty Principle 1.3 Alternative Versions of the Uncertainty Principle 2. Applications of the Uncertainty Principle 2.1 Beam Divergence 2.2 Beam Divergence and Astronomy 2.3 The Uncertainty Principle and the Cavity Linewidth Equation Problems References Chapter 4 The Physics of Multiple-Prism Optics 1. Introduction 2. Generalized Multiple-Prism Dispersion 2.1 Double-Pass Generalized Multiple-Prism Dispersion 2.2 Multiple Return-Pass Generalized Multiple-Prism Dispersion 2.3 Single-Prism Equations 3. Multiple-Prism Dispersion and Linewidth Narrowing 3.1 The Mechanics of Linewidth Narrowing in Optically-Pumped Pulsed Laser Oscillators 3.2 Design of Zero-Dispersion Multiple-Prism Beam Expanders 4. Multiple-Prism Dispersion and Pulse Compression 5. Applications of Multiple-Prism Arrays Problems References Chapter 5 Linear Polarization 1. Maxwell Equation 2. Polarization and Reflection 2.1 Plane of Incidence 3. Polarization of Prisms 3.1 Transmission Efficiency on Multiple-Prism Arrays 3.2 Induced Polarization in a Double-Prism Expander 3.3 Double-Refraction Polarizes 3.4 Attenuation of the Intensity of Laser Beams Using Polarization 4. Polarization Rotators 4.1 Fresnel Rhombs and Total Internal Reflection 4.2 Birefringent Polarization Rotators 4.3 Broadband Prismatic Polarization Rotators Problems References Chapter 6 Laser Beam Propagation Matrices 1. Introduction 2. ABCD Propagation Matrices 2.1 Properties of ABCD Matrices 2.2 Survey of ABCD Matrices 2.3 The Astronomical Telescope 2.4 A Single-Prism in Space 2.5 A Double-Prism Beam Expanders 2.6 Telescopes in Series 2.7 Single-Return Pass Beam Divergence 2.8 Multiple-Return Pass Beam Divergence 2.9 Unstable Resonators 3. Higher Order Matrices Problems References Chapter 7 Pulsed Narrow-Linewidth Tunable Laser Oscillators 1. Introduction 2. Transverse and Longitudinal Modes 2.1 Transverse-Mode Structure 2.2 Longitudinal-Mode Emission 3. Tunable Laser Oscillator and Architectures 3.1 Tunable Laser Oscillators without Intracavity Beam Expansion 3.2 Tunable Laser Oscillators with Intracavity Beam Expansion 3.3 Widely Tunable Narrow-Linewidth External-Cavity Semiconductor Lasers 3.4 Distributed Feedback Lasers 4. Wavelength Tuning Techniques 4.1 Prismatic Tuning Techniques 4.2 Diffractive Tuning Techniques 4.3 Interferometric Tuning Techniques 4.4 Longitudinal Tuning Techniques 4.5 Synchronous Tuning Techniques 5. Polarization Matching 6. Design of Efficient Narrow-Linewidth Tunable Laser Oscillators 6.1 Useful Axioms for the Design of Narrow-Linewidth Tunable Laser Oscillators 7. Narrow-Linewidth Oscillator-Amplifiers 7.1 Laser-Pumped Narrow-Linewidth Oscillator-Amplifier Configurations 7.2 Narrow-Linewidth Master-Oscillator Forced Oscillator Configurations Problems References Chapter 8 Nonlinear Optics 1. Introduction 2. Generation of Frequency Harmonics 2.1 Second Harmonic and Sum Frequency Generation 2.2 Difference Frequency Generation and Optical Parametric Oscillation 2.3 The Refractive Index in Nonlinear Optics 3. Optical Phase Conjugation 4. Raman Shifting 5. Applications of Nonlinear Optics Problems References Chapter 9 Lasers and Their Emission Characteristics 1. Introduction 2. Gas Lasers 2.1 Pulsed Molecular Gas Lasers 2.2 Pulsed Atomic and Ionic Metal Vapor Lasers 2.3 Continuous Wave Gas Lasers 3. Dye Lasers 3.1 Pulsed Dye Lasers 3.2 Continuous Wave Dye Lasers 4. Solid State Lasers 4.1 Ionic Solid-State Lasers 4.2 Transition Metal Solid-State Lasers 4.3 Color Center Lasers 4.4 Diode-Laser-Pumped Fiber Lasers 4.5 Optical Parametric Oscillators 5. Semiconductor Lasers 6. Additional Lasers Problems References Chapter 10 Architecture of N-Slip Interferometric-Laser Optical Systems 1. Introduction 2. Optical Architecture the N-Slit Laser Interferometer 2.1 Beam Propagation in the N-Slit Laser Interferometer 3. An Interferometric Computer 4. Applications of the N-Slit Laser Interferometer 4.1 Digital Laser Microdensitometer 4.2 Light Modulation Measurements 4.3 Wavelength Meter and Broadband Interferograms 5. Sensitometry Problems References Chapter 11 Spectrometry and Interferometry 1. Introduction 2. Spectrometry 2.1 Prism Spectrometers 2.2 Diffraction Grating Spectrometers 2.3 Dispersive Wavelength Meters 3. Interferometry 3.1 Two-Beam Interferometers 3.2 Multiple-Beam Interferometers 3.3 Interferometric Wavelength Meters Problems References Index